The human body is a remarkable, self-contained skin, blood, water, and bones system. It has the capability of withstanding deep cuts and bruises, and even with the loss of limbs and blood, can still keep functioning. Amazing as this is, we are expected to accept on TV and in the movies that people can walk away from serious injury, take an afternoon/day off from work and get right back to the job of running after criminals and taking them down. That our heroines/heroes train a little harder than ordinary humans, face the pain in ways that mere mortals can’t, then get on with their service to the community.
Not so fast.
Yes, there is intense physical training at some of the law enforcement academies and in the special ops branches of the armed services. Physical training is included so that patrol officers will have the stamina to chase suspects up staircases and through neighborhoods without having coronaries. Special ops personnel have specialized continuous training because of the harsh conditions and challenging terrain encountered during their service around the world.
BUT, after I watched yet another 40+ year old actor ‘survive’ several jumps onto adjacent roofs a story below, continue to run after the suspect, tackle, subdue, and arrest that suspect, I rolled my eyes and questioned a couple of doctors in the know.
Repeated landings onto hard surfaces from elevations that are greater than your own height will most likely result in injury to the legs. Knees, hips, femur, tibia, fibula, ligaments, and tendons all feel the shock of repetitive pounding. Hair line cracks in the bones of legs and/or feet (as well as varicose veins) can result, even for people in their twenties. The cop may be able to chase the suspect on level ground for a few blocks if his/her cardio is in great shape, but jumping and landing from a height of more than a few feet should be followed in the books or movies by ice and/or splints and feet up for more than ten minutes. Ignore the first aid and the injury gets worse, and may result in chronic pain and/or a limp, no matter how heroic the character. Keep jumping over walls onto concrete sidewalks and an orthopedic visit will be on the schedule.
After an intense fight, there will be cuts, swelling, and bruising all over body. The body’s own natural adrenaline will carry you through the fight, but sleep, first aid, and ice packs are required to combat the ensuing pain and stiffness. Those bruises will start out as blue/purple, and as they heal will turn yellow/green. It takes about 10-14 days for the bruises to disappear, so the guys in the fight should still have some sign of the struggle on their faces or body for at least a week.
Kneecap injury: Ouch! Ligaments and tendons tear and pop and hurt A LOT! You can walk on an injured knee for weeks, but unless you like to limp, surgery is in your future. Whether minor or major surgery is part of the package, the doc will have you up and walking (with crutch, cane, or walker) the next day. There will be a load of Physical Therapy and maybe a desk job until that knee is fully recovered. (Based on my own knee surgery experiences.)
A clean break in an arm requires a splint/sling to keep it more or less stable until it can be set. Recovery takes 4-6 weeks, but return to work might only take a few days because an arm is not weight-bearing.
A clean leg bone break? Depends on which bone in terms of recovery, but it could take up to 8 weeks. High on the thigh, or a compound fracture are awful breaks in terms of pain, physical therapy, and recovery, and might even be career-ending injuries. In the real world, nobody chases a suspect anytime soon on a compound fractured femur, even in a cast.
Fall through a plate glass window: the actors jump through ‘sugar glass,’ not actual glass. Anybody that gets through a plate glass window for real would have lacerations on any exposed skin, and other injuries as well, depending on the distance of the fall and what frames the glass. Most people are not big or heavy enough to break through the plate glass, but might get a concussion from collision with it.
Please note: the person in the photo was taking part in a re-enactment of a multiple injury accident scene, complete with fake blood. She was not injured in any way.
GSW (Gunshot wound): Recovery depends on where the GSW is on the body, and how severe the wound. There might be no hospital time with a couple of stitches and a light painkiller, or weeks of recovery, multiple surgeries, infection, and permanent disability.
A bullet graze is usually the equivalent of a deep cut. It hurts, but nobody is going to die from it or need an overnight stay in the hospital.
A bullet that goes through and through will hurt a great deal even if it misses vital organs. Bleeding must be stopped until help can arrive. An abdominal wound requires surgery and recovery time in bed. Holding onto your side after getting shot while you chop through the jungle with a machete ain’t happenin,’since moving increases the bleeding.
If the bullet nicks a major organ and the cop survives long enough to get to a hospital, surgery will be performed. Recovery time? Count on months away from work, not a few days.
If the bullet nicks an artery? It’s possible to bleed out in less than ten minutes (and die at the scene) before help can arrive.
My source of information: anonymous, but a Physical Therapist, an Orthopedic Surgeon, and active friends that have sustained a variety of injuries over the years.
“What? Is somebody trying to kill the builder?” you ask.
‘They’ might be thinking about it. As in, more than one person is annoyed.
Here’s what is happening. When we moved in, the neighborhood was full of wooded lots. Even the properties with houses already there, had plenty of trees at the edges, along the fences, or next to the houses. Some were mature trees that had been left on the otherwise cleared lots before construction had begun. Property owners added flowering trees as time passed. Wildlife flourishes in this residential neighborhood of 1/4 and 1/3 acre lots. We’re not out in the country, but these are not zero-lot homes either.
Phases 1 and 2 of the larger housing development have long been completed. Phase 3 was finished three years ago, the original trees are beautiful, and the owners are adding new fruit/flowering trees each year.
Enter Phase 4. The original developer had a few lots left and found a builder to buy them. That builder wanted the lots cleared before finalizing the deal. That’s when we, the neighbors, discovered that some of the grassy/lightly-wooded areas between existing homes were actually unsold lots.
ALL of the trees from those lots are being cleared, lots of red dirt remains, and now mudslides into neighboring backyards are expected with the next heavy rain.
The developer in charge of the work told me on the phone that the lots are not wide enough to have left the trees in place. The one in the photos is 60 feet wide. Years ago, I lived in a house surrounded by maples and evergreens. That lot was 50×100. IMO, this guy simply did not want to take the time to leave a couple of trees to shade the house and protect the wildlife on the lot.
The neighbors to the left and right of the bulldozer photo were concerned enough to have the City Inspector come out to assess the situation. Note the dirt to the left appears to be in a pile that crosses the property line and would be the most likely to slide into the neighbor’s yard in the rain.
The builder’s solution was to place sand barrier ‘fencing’ on the property line. The bulldozer operator moved the dirt up against it.
Other lots have similar problems with soil grading and tree removal.
Heated conversations have been held. The neighborhood grapevine is operating at peak efficiency. Town council meetings are scheduled on the topic.
In case you doubt that neighbors and builders would actually get angry over something like this, read on.
Existing homeowners in Colorado were upset with new builders in the neighborhood who appeared to be putting in homes that did not conform to the look of the development, thereby lowering everyone’s property values. Building was delayed while plans were reviewed. Board members who were in charge of approving the designs (but didn’t) were removed from their positions and new people replaced them.
When developers with big money at stake and disgruntled homeowners with possible deflated property values are at odds, tempers can flare, injunctions can occur, and nothing good happens. If the builder complies with city ordinances, there is little recourse for the neighbors who don’t care for the look of the newer houses, or how the new homes will affect them.
City codes exist for a reason. Check yours out. You might be surprised at what is NOT included in some communities, such as: building setbacks, curbing pets, rules about garbage, home swimming pool regulations, livestock allowed in the city limits, etc.
We haven’t seen any bodies in the remaining woods yet, but it is still early in the process. Kidding. Tempers are high, but so far, everybody is at the yelling stage. Let’s hope that reason prevails and the builder corrects the problems he has created, and doesn’t produce any new ones.
The two houses built on the properties in the photos have flooding issues. One has a perpetual pond in the backyard from the water cascading down the slope, requiring special drains to keep the water away from the house. The builder was within city code requirements and took no responsibility for the flooding caused by his bulldozing method. Buyer beware.
*Photos by Patti Phillips
Forensic: relating to or dealing with the application of scientific knowledge to legal problems (Merriam-Webster dictionary definition)
Back when I began in the Police Department (longer ago than I care to admit) the word ‘forensic’ was rarely used by police officers on the street. We knew to be careful if we were first to arrive at crime scene so that potential evidence wouldn’t be compromised, and the detectives pointed us to what needed to be preserved or uncovered so that a case could be proved. We dealt with physical collection, not analysis.
Analysis of the evidence is in the purview of the forensic scientists, the detectives, and the D.A.’s office.
Forensic Science is the broad term encompassing a wide range of forensic specialties and these days, is often shortened to ‘forensics,’ as in: ‘Let’s take a look at the forensics on the case.’ But what area of forensic science is required to solve a case? It depends. The prosecutor doesn’t need the findings from a dental x-ray when dealing with a known victim, but might need the results of a forensic toxicologist’s tests to determine a seemingly suspicious cause of death.
Most evidence is collected from the scene of the crime by trained local law enforcement personnel (that includes the photographer and the fingerprint person) in smaller jurisdictions, specifically assigned crime scene investigators (CSIs) in larger municipalities, and if needed, the forensic scientists themselves.
For the most part, the processing of body evidence is completed in labs or during autopsies in hospital, police, or State morgues. Other than body tissue or bodily fluids, things that shouldn’t be there (bullets, metal fragments, gravel, etc.) are sent out for testing. Experts might be tapped for their opinions about certain marks on the body that would have caused a blunt force trauma or other types of violent death, or for the condition of recovered remains.
Non-body evidence would be gathered from the scene and sent for processing to a lab that specializes in that area of analysis. Most States in the USA have centralized labs for various umbrellas of expertise, since smaller towns just don’t have the financial wherewithal (equipment and personnel) to handle finite investigations. In these days of post CSI TV shows, prosecutors and defense attorneys alike need to nail down the suspect’s guilt with absolute certainty for the public, so they rely on forensic test results and/or experts in the field to convince the jury of a suspect’s guilt or innocence.
So, who does what and how do they help the prosecution or defense teams? Listed below are some of the many forensic specialties.
Bloodstain Pattern Specialist determines the point of origin of an impact pattern as well as the movement of people after being hit or shot.
Digital Forensic Analyst recovers or investigates data from electronic or digital media, including audio and video recordings, and computers. These days, the skill set may also include the ability to investigate cellphones and other mobile devices for the call history, deleted messages, and corrupted SIM cards.
Forensic Accountant finds accounting discrepancies and interprets them for fraud or tax evasion cases as well as other criminal activities.
Forensic Anthropologist helps identify skeletonized human remains.
Forensic Ballistics expert investigates the use of firearms and ammo from a crime scene.
Forensic Botanist can determine where a body or suspect may have been because of the plant life found in or around the body or suspect.
Forensic Chemist detects and identifies illegal drugs seized during a drug bust, or found in a body.
Forensic DNA analyst does paternity/maternity testing or places a suspect at a crime scene.
Forensic Document Examiner interprets document evidence to determine authenticity of wills or potential forgeries.
Forensic Entomologist exams insects in, on, and around human remains to help establish the time and place of death.
Forensic Facial Reconstructionist works with the skulls of recovered remains to identify them.
Forensic Geologist analyzes trace evidence establishing where a body was killed or whether it was moved to a different location.
Forensic Limnologist analyzes evidence collected in or around fresh water sources. Examination of biological organisms can connect suspects with victims.
Forensic Odonatologist compares dental records with teeth of the corpse when facial recognition isn’t likely or possible.
Forensic Pathologist applies principles of medicine and pathology to determine a cause of death or injury for legal purposes.
Forensic Photographer creates an accurate photographic record of a crime scene to aid investigations and court proceedings.
Forensic Serologist tests body fluids for rape cases or to determine if blood on the body belongs to that person or someone else.
Forensic Toxicologist analyzes the effect of drugs and poisons on the human body.
Trace Evidence Analyst analyzes trace evidence including glass, paint, fibers, hair, etc. that occurs when different objects contact one another.
Shoe companies, gun manufacturers, tire companies, etc. all keep records of their products made and distributed over time. In the age of computers, some enterprising criminalists created a variety of national databases with information on multiple companies and their products. The goal? To make it easier to match up shoe prints, or skid marks, or bullets to a particular person or crime scene. With a little luck, and research/chemical testing, even filed down serial numbers can be revealed, and a firearm can be traced back to its manufacturer, point of sale, and the owner. Tire impressions at a crime scene can be matched to a database to discover the make and model of a vehicle that may have been there. Distinctive shoe prints in the mud outside a house can be matched to a suspected burglar, or rule him/her out.
Who makes sense of all of the information observed and gathered at a crime scene? Generally, it’s a team effort, not the achievement of just one person that heroically solves the mystery of the who, what, when, where, and why of a crime scene. But the Forensic Scientists (or Criminalists) play a big role in identifying the pertinent pieces of the puzzle. They can answer questions about what they discovered while comparing body evidence, trace evidence, fingerprints, footwear impressions, drugs, ballistics, paper trails, etc., and the detectives or investigators most familiar with the case pull it all together.
Somebody asked me recently if just anyone can tack ‘Forensic’ in front of their job title. Not likely. For instance, a Forensic Accountant is much more than a savvy bookkeeper. They have advanced degrees and certifications specifically geared toward discovering whether a crime has occurred in complex situations, evaluating whether there might have been criminal intent, and then communicating that information in a way that a layperson can understand it. From Investopedia.com: “The reason we understand the nature of Bernie Madoff’s Ponzi scheme today is because forensic accountants dissected the scheme and made it understandable for the court case.”
This level of expertise is required in every area of forensic analysis.
“Who Murdered Jake?” in Kerrian’s Notebook, Vol. 2: Fun, Facts, and a Few Dead Bodies
*Photos by Patti Phillips